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Propiedades del grafeno varían ante presencia de otros materiales

El Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts en sus mas reciente investigaciones sobre el grafeno afirma que una de las propiedades del material es que este puede variar según ante la presencia de otros materiales, el proyecto de investigación que ha sido desarrollado por el MIT y financiado en conjunto por la Oficina de Investigación Naval de la Marina de Estados Unidos. Las conclusiones de dicha investigación han sorprendido bastante al equipo del MIT porque dependiendo del sustrato sobre el cual se deposite el grafeno, las propiedades de este -conduccion de electricidad y/o interacción química con otros compuestos- varían considerablemente.

Los investigadores responsables de este estudio son; Michael Strano, Charles Roddey, Qing Hua Wang e Hilda Roddey del Departamento de Ingeniería Química del MIT esperaban que independientemente del sustrato el grafeno se comportase de la misma forma, algo que si cumple con otra alotropía del carbono y que es en este caso sería el grafito.

Nos sorprendimos bastante al descubrir esta alteración del comportamiento. […] El grafeno es muy extraño y contradictorio.

En vista que las “Hojas de Grafeno” son un material de poco espesor y según pruebas realizadas, dependiendo del sustrato, se obtenía un comportamiento u otro. En el caso de dióxido de silicio que es uno de los materiales que se usan en la fabricación de chips, el grafeno puede reaccionar frente a distintas sustancias químicas a las que es expuesto, pero, cuando se cambia el sustrato por nitruro de boro, el material no reaccionaba.

El grafeno puede activarse o desactivarse según el sustrato que se  utilice

El grafeno puede activarse o desactivarse debido a que el material es muy fino, el campo eléctrico que se forma en el material sobre el que se apoya adecta fuertemente el comportamiento del material.

Se puede decir que gracias a la anterior propiedad se podría fabricar dispositivos que usen dos sustratos distintos que puedan reaccionar ante la presencia de determinados compuestos químicos, ejemplo se puede fabricar sensores con los que se rastrean materiales biológicos, químicos o materiales como el cobre ya que el grafeno impide la oxidación de este metal.

Es posible, gracias al grafeno, desactivar por completo la corrosión del material casi “por arte de magia” depositando una capa de grafeno.

Esta investigación es muy útil porque deja la base para otras investigaciones abiertas sobre el grafeno para desarrollar usos prácticos o su integración en dispositivos electrónicos.

Dados que una de las propiedades del grafeno en esta investigación parece depender del sustrato sobre el que se apoye, se pueden desarrollar múltiples tipos de sustratos y reactivos con los que se entraría a desarrollar sensores o, incluso, explorar las propiedades del grafeno cuando además de estar apoyado sobre un sustrato se deposita sobre el material otro compuesto distinto (configuración bicapa), algo que según el MIT arrojará propiedades distintas y, por tanto, ampliarán el abanico de usos de este material.

Imagen de una capa de grafeno que muestra la parte superior de un sustrato modelado muestra la diferencia en la reactividad química de el lado opuesto del sustrato.

Vía: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/graphene-electrons-behavior-0813.html

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