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El grafeno es apto para revolucionar la electrónica actual

Se ha especulado mucho con la posibilidad de apilar láminas individuales de grafeno entre capas de materiales aislantes para crear dispositivos electrónicos de propiedades únicas. Había dudas de la posibilidad de hacerlo sin perder sus excelentes propiedades como conductor de electricidad y calor.

En el proceso de fabricación de estos «sándwiches» de grafeno es inevitable que se acumulen, entre capa y capa, otros materiales no deseados. Estas moléculas intrusas pueden debilitar las cualidades de la estructura general y empeorar su rendimiento. ¿Y cómo saber si están ahí, o cuánto afectan? Desde fuera no se puede ver nada. Un grupo de investigadores británicos ha decidido hacer un corte transversal, «abrir la tarta», y ver qué encontraban en sus tripas.

Su hallazgo es que el grafeno es tan o más apto de lo que se esperaba para liderar la próxima revolución electrónica. La contaminación con materiales existe, pero tan solo en pequeñas bolsas aisladas que no afectan al rendimiento general. «Nuestras imágenes muestran que se pueden construir heteroestructuras atómicamente nítidas», apuntan en su artículo, publicado en la revista Nature Materials. Las heteroestructuras son «sandwiches» entre semiconductores cristalinos y piezas clave en la fabricación de componentes electrónicos avanzados.

La técnica de estudio de estas capas es el equivalente nanométrico de la extracción de testigos de hielo en la Antártida, o de hacer cortes en el suelo para ver los estratos geológicos. Aunque el propósito no era el mismo, sino ver la nitidez de la composición interna. Si los dos componentes se separaban bien y hasta dónde llegaba la contaminación de materiales extraños.

El corte transversal de las capas de grafeno —intercaladas por Nitruro de boro— se realizó con una técnica bastante nueva. Proyectaron un haz de iones para cavar una «trinchera» alrededor del trozo que querían arrancar, y después lo capturaron con unas nanopinzas.

Su posterior análisis demostró que el grafeno, la lámina monoatómica de carbono que parece la solución a todos los límites de la tecnología actual, es apto para la fabricación de nuevos componentes electrónicos en combinación con otros materiales.

 

 

Vía: http://www.abc.es/20120730/ciencia/abci-imagenes-capas-grafeno-201207301326.html

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